What is hypertension?
We know that normal blood pressure is vital. It takes some pressure to allow the blood to flow through the blood vessels to the organs and tissues. This arises from the rhythmic pumping of the heart and the resistance of the vessel walls. If the myocardium contracts and carries the blood forward, increased blood pressure is created in the arteries. When the heart muscle subsequently relaxes, the heart refills with blood and the pressure in the arteries subsides, but does not drop to zero and is maintained by the arterial walls between the pump bursts of the heart to allow the blood to continue to flow within the arteries.
There are two blood pressure values that are obtained when measuring blood pressure:
- Systolic blood pressure: This value arises during the phase in which the heart contracts. This is called systole. The blood is pumped from the heart into the aorta, which creates a pressure wave that is spread over the vessel walls of the arteries to outer body regions such as arms and legs. This pulse wave is measurable at that moment.
- Diastolic blood pressure: In the phase called diastole, the heart muscle expands and fills with blood again. There is still pressure in the vessels, but it is lower than in systole.
Blood pressure is subject to certain fluctuations in all people. Physical exertion, anxiety and excitement increase blood pressure, while blood pressure drops dramatically during sleep, meditation or rest. These fluctuations are normal. They serve the physical adjustment to the respective situation. In healthy people, however, these values always fall back to normal.
How to measure blood pressure
Blood pressure is measured in mmHg, in millimeters of mercury. For example, the reading of 126/79 mmHg, that is 126 to 79, means that the systolic blood pressure is 126 and the diastolic is 79 mmHg. The following reference ranges are set for blood pressure:
Blood pressure normal values 120-129 80-84
Normal blood pressure in the higher range 130-139 85-89
High blood pressure grade 1 140-159 90-99
High blood pressure grade 2 160-179 100-109
Severe hypertension Grade 3 180 110
Symptoms of high blood pressure
Unfortunately there are almost no symptoms of high blood pressure. You have to measure the blood pressure to see if it is elevated. Only very high blood pressure causes symptoms such as blurred vision, nosebleeds, headache and shortness of breath. If you are over 40, you should have your blood pressure checked every five years. If you suspect hypertension, it is advisable to take several measurements using a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure meter). However, one should not make unnecessary measurements or be over-involved in the topic, because this stress might also increase the blood pressure.
Causes of high blood pressure
It is difficult to list the exact causes of high blood pressure as it is usually a combination of several things that lead to hypertension. Risk factors are stress, lack of exercise, overweight, genetics, poor diet (especially too much salt) but also smoking and alcohol. In general it can be said that heredity, lifestyle, age and gender, always play a significant role. Blood pressure is always treated by a combination of healthy lifestyle and blood pressure medications. Since this condition is widespread in the UK, doctors, pharmacies and health insurance companies are relatively well trained and you can get help quickly.
How to lower the blood pressure without medications
There are several steps that have to be taken in order to lower the blood pressure. If the hypertension is type 1, it is not necessary to take any medication if the following points are met:
Nutrition: People with high blood pressure must follow a strict diet. It is important to cut salt and eat healthy, which means fresh fruits and vegetables, no alcohol, no fat meat and not too much sugar. Cold-pressed vegetable oils and omega-3 fatty acids should be added to the diet.
Movement: In order to stimulate body functions and the immune system it is necessary to move every day.
Relaxation: Those who suffer from high blood pressure are very often subject to stress. It is therefore necessary to abandon the factors, as far as possible, that push blood pressure further up and perhaps even trigger it. Instead take the following measures: meditation, sauna, breathing exercises, reading, autogenic training or other relaxation techniques.
ACE - inhibitors and Sartans for the lowering of high blood pressure
ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers are active agents used in the treatment of high blood pressure. They are inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which causes the conversion of inactive angiotensin-I into active angiotensin II. The most important active substances in this category are Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril, Perindopril and Ramipril. Losartan and Candesartan belong to the group of Sartans or Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB). Sartans are receptor antagonists of the ACE receptors and, in addition to the ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, are the most important drugs for lowering blood pressure. They block the docking site or the receptor of the hormone angiotensin II and suppress its action. Normally, this hormone causes a rise in blood pressure because it provokes vasoconstriction, decreased kidney circulation, as well as increased recovery of sodium ions and hence water in the kidneys. Sartans have relatively few side effects, as they interfere with the hormone control loop later than the ACE inhibitors. Therefore, they are often prescribed when ACE inhibitors are not well -tolerated. Apomeds offers the appropriate original medications. We connect you to doctors who will issue you a prescription in our virtual consultation, and a mail-order pharmacy which will send the medication directly to your home. These are the products that Apomeds can offer you:
- Lisinopril and Enalapril
- Ramipril and Losartan
Beta blockers for lowering blood pressure
By docking on the so-called betareceptors in the heart, the hormone adrenaline and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine cause an increase in cardiac muscle activity. As a result, heart-strength and heart- rate increase, which causes a reduction in the stimulation threshold of the heart. This means that the pumping power of the heart increases and the blood pressure increases. The beta-blocker Bisoprolol, has the ability to block these receptors so that epinephrine and norepinephrine can no longer dock and cause a decrease in adrenaline. This lowers the blood pressure, as well as the oxygen and energy consumption of the heart. Finally, this reduces blood pressure, relieves the heart muscle and reduces the overall heart work.
Medication for hypertension at Apomeds
All medicines for the treatment of hypertension need a prescription. If you need a follow-up prescription for any of the anti-hypertensive medicines, then Apomeds is the place to be. We connect you to doctors who will arrange a follow-up prescription online, and with a mail-order pharmacy which will send the medication directly to your home.
More information on high blood pressure
Blood Pressure UK