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High blood pressure

Hypertension

Hypertension is a wide-spread disease in Britain. It is estimated that 20 to 30 million people suffer from it. In the long run, high blood pressure damages the blood vessels and contributes to the development of secondary diseases, such as heart attack and stroke. Since hypertension has few symptoms, but should be treated quickly, it is important to be examined regularly.

high blood pressure

What is blood pressure?

We know that normal blood pressure is vital. It takes some pressure to allow the blood to flow through the blood vessels to the organs and tissues. This arises from the rhythmic pumping of the heart, and the resistance of the vessel walls. If the myocardium contracts and carries the blood forward, increased blood pressure is created in the arteries. When the heart muscle subsequently relaxes, the heart refills with blood and the pressure in the arteries subsides. It does not drop to zero, but is maintained by the arterial walls, between the pump bursts of the heart, to allow the blood to continue to flow within the arteries.

Depending on the action of the heart, there are two blood pressure values that are obtained when measuring blood pressure:

Systolic blood pressure: This value arises during the phase in which the heart contracts, which is called systole. The blood is pumped from the heart into the aorta . This creates a pressure wave, which spreads over the vessel walls of the arteries to remote body regions such as arms and legs. Also there is a pulse measurable at that moment.

Diastolic blood pressure: In the phase called diastole, the heart muscle expands and re-fills with blood. There is still pressure in the vessels, but it is lower than in systole.

Blood pressure is subject to certain fluctuations in everyone. Physical exertion, anxiety and excitement increase blood pressure, while blood pressure drops dramatically during sleep, meditation or rest. These fluctuations are normal and serve the physical adjustment to the respective situation. In healthy people, however, these values always fall back to normal.

Measure blood pressure

Blood pressure is measured in mmHg, in millimeters of mercury. For example, the reading of 126/79 mmHg, that is 126 to 79, means that the systolic blood pressure is 126 and the diastolic is 79 mmHg. The following reference ranges are set for blood pressure:

Blood pressure normal values 120-129 80-84
Normal blood pressure in the higher range 130-139 85-89
Low blood pressure grade 1 140-159 90-99
Moderate high blood pressure grade 2 160-179 100-109
Severe hypertension grad 3 180 110

High blood pressure symptoms

This is the problem, because unfortunately there are almost no symptoms of high blood pressure. You have to measure blood pressure to see if it is elevated. Only very high blood pressure causes symptoms such as blurred vision, nosebleeds, headache and shortness of breath. If you are over 40, you should have your blood pressure checked every five years. If you suspect hypertension, it is advisable to take several measurements with a sphygmomanometer. However, one should not make unnecessary measurements or get in too much, because that can also increase the blood pressure.

Hypertension Causes

It is difficult to list exact causes of high blood pressure, as it is usually a combination of several things. Stress, lack of exercise, overweight, poor diet, especially too much salt, but also smoking and alcohol, are risk factors. It is also partly due to genes. In short, heredity, lifestyle, age and gender play a role.

How to treat high blood pressure

Blood pressure is always treated with a combination of a healthy lifestyle and blood pressure medications. Since this condition is widespread in Britain, doctors, pharmacies and health insurance companies are relatively well- trained and you can get help quickly.

Lower your blood pressure without medication

Several measures must be taken to lower the blood pressure itself. Depending on the stage, it is not necessary to take any medication if the following points are met:

Nutrition:

People with hypertension need a strict diet. It is important to eat low- salt and healthy. Healthy means, fresh fruits and vegetables, no alcohol, no fat meat and not too much sugar. Cold-pressed vegetable oils and omega-3 fatty acids should be added.

Movement:

In order to stimulate the body functions and the immune system it is necessary to move daily.

Relaxation:

People who suffer from high blood pressure are often exposed to stress. It is therefore urgent to stop the psychosomatic factors that push blood pressure further up and perhaps even trigger it, but instead take the following measures: meditation, sauna, breathing exercises, reading, autogenic training or other measures.

Blood Pressure Reducing Inhibitors and Sartans

ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers, are agents used in the treatment of high blood pressure. They are inhibitors of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which causes the conversion of inactive angiotensin-I into active angiotensin II. The most important active substances in this category are captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril and ramipril. Losartan and candesartan belong to the group of sartans or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB). Sartans are receptor antagonists of the ACE receptors and, in addition to the ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, are the most important drugs for lowering blood pressure. They block the docking site or the receptor of the hormone angiotensin II and suppress its action. Normally, this hormone causes a rise in blood pressure because it provokes vasoconstriction, decreased kidney circulation, and increased recovery of sodium ions and thus water in the kidneys. Sartans have relatively few side effects, as they interfere with the hormone control loop later than the ACE inhibitors. Therefore, they are often prescribed when ACE inhibitors are not well tolerated.

  • Lisinopril,
  • Enalapril
  • Ramipril
  • Losartan
  • Candesartan

Beta Blocker to Reduce Blood Pressure

By docking the so-called beta-receptors in the heart, the hormone adrenaline and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine cause an increase in cardiac- muscle activity. As a result, heart strength and heart rate increase, which reduces the stimulation threshold of the heart. This means that the pumping power of the heart increases and the blood pressure increases. The beta-blocker, bisoprolol, has the ability to block these receptors, so that epinephrine and norepinephrine can no longer dock, causing a decrease in adrenaline. This lowers the blood pressure, as well as the oxygen and energy consumption of the heart. This reduces blood pressure, relieves the heart muscle and reduces overall heart work.

  • Bisoprolol

Medicines for hypertension in Apomeds

All medicines for the treatment of hypertension require prescriptions. If you want a follow-up for any of the anti-hypertensive medicines, then Apomeds is the place to be. We connect you to licences doctors who will arrange a follow-up prescription online, and to a registered mail-order pharmacy which will send the medication directly to your home.


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